Jain concepts

the way of ahimsa; Digambara and Svetambara
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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:33 am

This broad definition of the term dhyana means that it signifies any state of deep concentration, with good or bad results.[24] Later texts like Umaswati's Tattvārthasūtra and Jinabhadra's Dhyana-Sataka (sixth century) also discusses these four dhyanas. This system seems to be uniquely Jain.[2]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:33 am

During this era, a key text was the Tattvarthasutra by Acharya Umāsvāti which codified Jain doctrine.[1] According to the Tattvarthasutra, yoga is the sum of all the activities of mind, speech and body. Umāsvāti (fl. sometime between the 2nd and 5th-century CE) calls yoga the cause of "asrava" or karmic influx[25] as well as one of the essentials—samyak caritra—in the path to liberation.[25] Umāsvāti prescribed a threefold path of yoga: right conduct/austerity, right knowledge, right faith.[2]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:34 am

Umāsvāti also defined a series of fourteen stages of spiritual development (guṇasthāna), into which he embedded the four fold description of dhyana.[26] These stages culminate in the pure activities of body, speech, and mind (sayogi-kevala), and the "cessation of all activity" (ayogi-kevala).[27] Umāsvāti also defined meditation in a new way (as ‘ekāgra-cintā’):

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:34 am

“Concentration of thought on a single object by a person with good bone-joints is meditation which lasts an intra-hour (ā-muhūrta)”[28]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:34 am

Other important figures are Jinabhadra, and Pujyapada Devanandi (wrote the commentary Sarvārthasiddhi). Sagarmal Jain notes that during the canonical age of Jaina meditation, one finds strong analogues with the 8 limbs of Patanjali Yoga, including the yamas and niyamas, through often under different names. Sagarmal also notes that during this period the Yoga systems of Jainism, Buddhism and Patanjali Yoga had many similarities.[2]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:35 am

Post-canonical

This period saw new texts specifically on Jain meditation and further Hindu influences on Jain yoga. Ācārya Haribhadra in the 8th century wrote the meditation compendium called Yogadṛṣṭisamuccya which discusses systems of Jain yoga, Patanjali Yoga and Buddhist yoga and develops his own unique system that are somewhat similar to these. Ācārya Haribhadra assimilated many elements from Patañjali’s Yoga-sūtra into his new Jain yoga (which also has eight parts) and composed four texts on this topic, Yoga-bindu, Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya, Yoga-śataka and Yoga-viṅśikā.[30] Johannes Bronkhorst considers Haribhadra's contributions a "far more drastic departure from the scriptures."[31] He worked with a different definition of yoga than previous Jains, defining yoga as "that which connects to liberation" and his works allowed Jainism to compete with other religious systems of yoga.[30]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:35 am

The first five stages of Haribhadra's yoga system is preparatory and includes posture and so on. The sixth stage is kāntā [pleasing] and is similar to Patañjali's "Dhāraṇā." It is defined as "a higher concentration for the sake of compassion toward others.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:36 am

Pleasure is never found in externals and a beneficial reflection arises. In this state, due to the efficacy of dharma, one’s conduct becomes purified. One is beloved among beings and single-mindedly devoted to dharma. (YSD, 163) With mind always fixed on scriptural dharma." [32]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:36 am

The seventh stage is radiance (prabhā), a state of calmness, purification and happiness as well as "the discipline of conquering amorous passion, the emergence of strong discrimination, and the power of constant serenity."[33]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:36 am

The final stage of meditation in this system is 'the highest' (parā), a "state of Samadhi in which one becomes free from all attachments and attains liberation." Haribhadra sees this as being in "the category of “ayoga” (motionlessness), a state which we can compare with the state just prior to liberation."[33]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:36 am

Acarya Haribhadra (as well as the later thinker Hemacandra) also mentions the five major vows of ascetics and 12 minor vows of laity under yoga. This has led certain Indologists like Prof. Robert J. Zydenbos to call Jainism, essentially, a system of yogic thinking that grew into a full-fledged religion.[34] The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali bear a resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating a history of strong cross-fertilization between these traditions.[35][a]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:36 am

Later works also provide their own definitions of meditation. The Sarvārthasiddhi of Akalanka (9 th c. CE) states "only the knowledge that shines like an unflickering flame is meditation."[37] According to Samani Pratibha Pragya, the Tattvānuśāsana of Ramasena (10th c. CE) states that this knowledge is "many-pointed concentration (vyagra) and meditation is one-pointed concentration (ekāgra)."[38]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:38 am

The Tantric age

This period sees tantric influences on Jain meditation, which can be gleaned in the Jñānārṇava of Śubhacandra (11thc. CE), and the Yogaśāstra of Hemacandra (12th c. CE).[39] Śubhacandra offered a new model of four meditations:[40]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:38 am

Meditation on the corporeal body (piṇḍstha), which also includes five concentrations (dhāraṇā): on the earth element (pārthivī), the fire element (āgneyī), the air element (śvasanā/ mārutī), the water element (vāruṇī) and the fifth related to the non-material self (tattvrūpavatī).

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:38 am

Meditation on mantric syllables (padastha);

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:38 am

Meditation on the forms of the arhat (rūpastha);

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:39 am

Meditation on the pure formless self (rūpātīta).

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:39 am

Śubhacandra also discusses breath control and withdrawal of the mind. Modern scholars such as Mahāprajña have noted that this system of yoga already existed in Śaiva tantra and that Śubhacandara developed his system based on the Navacakreśvara-tantra and that this system is also present in Abhinavagupta’s Tantrāloka.[40]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:39 am

The Yogaśāstra of Hemacandra (12th c. CE) closely follows the model of Śubhacandra. This trend of adopting ideas from the Brāhmaṇical and tantric Śaiva traditions continues with the work of the later Śvetāmbara upādhyāya Yaśovijaya (1624–1688), who wrote many works on yoga.[41]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:39 am

During the 17th century, Ācārya Vinayavijaya composed the Śānta-sudhārasabhāvanā in Sanskrit which teaches sixteen anuprekṣā, or contemplations.[42]

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