Jain concepts

the way of ahimsa; Digambara and Svetambara
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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:40 am

Modern era

The growth and popularity of mainstream Yoga and Hindu meditation practices influenced a revival in various Jain communities, especially in the Śvētāmbara Terapanth order. These systems sought to "promote health and well-being and pacifism, via meditative practices as “secular” nonreligious tools."[43] 20th century Jain meditation systems were promoted as universal systems accessible to all, drawing on modern elements, using new vocabulary designed to appeal to the lay community, whether Jains or non-Jains.[44] It is important to note that these developments happened mainly among Śvētāmbara sects, while Digambara groups generally did not develop new modernist meditation systems.[45] Digambara sects instead promote the practice of self-study (Svādhyāya) as a form of meditation, influenced by the work of Kundakunda. This practice of self study (reciting scriptures and thinking about the meaning) is included in the practice of equanimity (sāmāyika) which is the spiritual practice emphasized by 20th century Digambara sects.[4]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:41 am

Terāpanth prekṣā-dhyāna

The modern era saw the rise of a new Śvētāmbara sect, the Śvētāmbara Terapanth, founded by Ācārya Bhikṣu, who was said to be able to practice breath retention (hold his breath) for two hours.[46] He also practiced ātāpanā by sitting under the scorching sun for hours while chanting and visualizing yantras.[47] Further Terapanth scholars like Jayācārya wrote on various meditation practices, including a devotional visualization of the tīrthaṅkaras in various colors and “awareness of breathing” (sāsā-surat), this influenced the later “perception of breathing” (śvāsa–prekṣā) and the meditation on auras (leśyā-dhyāna) of Ācārya Mahāprajña.[48]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:41 am

Tulasī (1913–1997) and Ācārya Mahāprajña (1920– 2010) developed a system termed prekṣā-dhyāna which included "meditative techniques of mantra, posture (āsana), breath control (prāṇāyāma), hand and body gestures (mudrā), various bodily locks (bandha), meditation (dhyāna) and reflection (bhāvanā)."[49] Through the use of numerous different sources, including Jain scripture and tradition, SN Goenka's vipassanā meditation (Mahāprajña attended retreats in this tradition), Patañjali’s Yoga-sūtra, the Haṭha yoga tradition and Western science and therapies.[50] The key texts of this meditation system are Prekṣā-Dhyāna: Ādhāra aura Svarūpa (Prekṣā Meditation: Basis and Form, 1980), Prekṣā-Dhyāna: Prayoga aura Paddhatti (Prekṣā Meditation: Theory and Practice, 2010) and Prekṣā-Dhyāna: Darśana aura Prayoga (Prekṣā Meditation: Philosophy and Practice, 2011).

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:41 am

Despite the innovations, the meditation system it is said is firmly grounded in the classic Jain metaphysical mind body dualism in which the self (jiva, characterized by consciousness, cetana which consists of knowledge, jñāna and intuition, darśana) is covered over by subtle and gross bodies.[51]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:41 am

Prekṣā means "to perceive carefully and profoundly". In prekṣā, perception always means an impartial experience bereft of the duality of like and dislike, pleasure and pain, attachment or aversion.[52] Meditative progress proceeds through the different gross and subtle bodies, differentiating between them and the pure consciousness of jiva. Mahāprajña interprets the goal of this to mean to “perceive and realise the most subtle aspects of consciousness by your conscious mind (mana).”[53] Important disciplines in the system are - Synchrony of mental and physical actions or simply present mindedness or complete awareness of one's actions, disciplining the reacting attitude, friendliness, diet, silence, spiritual vigilance.[54]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:42 am

The mature prekṣā system is taught using an eight limb hierarchical schema, where each one is necessary for practicing the next:[55]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:42 am

Relaxation (kāyotsarga), abandonment of the body, also “relaxation (śithilīkaraṇa) with self-awareness,” allows vital force (prāṇa) to flow.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:42 am

Internal Journey (antaryātrā), this is based on the practice of directing the flow of vital energy (prāṇa-śakti) in an upward direction, interpreted as being connected with the nervous system.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:42 am

Perception of Breathing (śvāsaprekon), of two types: (1) perception of long or deep breathing (dīrgha-śvāsa-prekṣā) and (2) perception of breathing through alternate nostrils (samavṛtti-śvāsa-prekṣā).

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:43 am

Perception of Body (śarīraprekṣā), one becomes aware of the gross physical body (audārika-śarīra), the fiery body (taijasa-śarīra) and karmic body (karmaṇa-śarīra), this practice allows one to perceive the self through the body.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:43 am

Perception of Psychic Centres (caitanyakendra-prekṣā), defined as locations in the subtle body that contain ‘dense consciousness’ (saghana-cetanā), which Mahāprajña maps into the endocrine system.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:43 am

Perception of Psychic Colors (leśyā-dhyāna), these are subtle consciousness radiations of the soul, which can be malevolent or benevolent and can be transformed.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:43 am

Auto-Suggestion (bhāvanā), Mahāprajña defines bhāvanā as “repeated verbal reflection”, infusing the psyche (citta) with ideas through strong resolve and generating "counter-vibrations" which eliminate evil impulses.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:43 am

Contemplation (anuprekṣā), contemplations are combined with the previous steps of dhyana in different ways. The contemplations can often be secular in nature.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:44 am

A few important contemplation themes are - Impermanence, Solitariness, and Vulnerability. Regular practice is believed to strengthen the immune system and build up stamina to resist against aging, pollution, viruses, diseases. Meditation practice is an important part of the daily lives of the religion's monks.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:44 am

Mahāprajña also taught subsidiary limbs to prekṣā-dhyāna which would help support the meditations in a holistic manner, these are Prekṣā-yoga (posture and breathing control) and Prekṣā-cikitsā (therapy).[57] Mantras such as Arham are also used in this system.[58]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:45 am

Other Modern Jain meditation traditions
Citrabhānu (b. 1922) was a Jain monk who moved to the West in 1971, and founded the first Jain meditation center in the world, the Jaina Meditation International Centre in New York City. He eventually married and became a lay teacher of a new system called "Jain meditation" (JM), on which he wrote various books.[59] The core of his system consists of three steps (tripadī): 1. who am I? (kohum), 2. I am not that (nahum) (not non-self), 3. I am that (sohum) (I am the self). He also makes use of classic Jain meditations such as the twelve reflections (thought taught in a more optimistic, modern way), Jaina mantras, meditation on the seven chakras, as well as Hatha Yoga techniques

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:45 am

Ācārya Suśīlakumāra (1926–1994) of the Sthānakavāsī tradition founded “Arhum Yoga” (Yoga on Omniscient) and established a Jain community called the “Arhat Saṅgha” in New Jersey in 1974.[61] His meditation system is strongly tantric and employs mantras (mainly the namaskār), nyasa, visualization and chakras.[62]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:45 am

The Sthānakavāsī Ācārya Nānālāla (1920–1999), developed a Jaina meditation called Samīkṣaṇa-dhyāna (looking at thoroughly, close investigation) in 1981.[63] The main goal of samīkṣaṇa-dhyāna is the experience of higher consciousness within the self and liberation in this life.[64] Samīkṣaṇa-dhyāna is classified into two categories: introspection of the passions (kaṣāya samīkṣaṇa) and samatā-samīkṣaṇa, which includes introspection of the senses (indriya samīkṣaṇa), introspection of the vow (vrata samīkṣaṇa) introspection of the karma (karma samīkṣaṇa), introspection of the Self (ātma samīkṣaṇa) and others.[65]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:45 am

Bhadraṅkaravijaya (1903–1975) of the Tapāgaccha sect founded “Sālambana Dhyāna” (Support Meditation). According to Samani Pratibha Pragya, most of these practices "seem to be a deritualisation of pūjā in a meditative form, i.e. he recommended the mental performance of pūjā." These practices (totally 34 different meditations) focus on meditating on arihantas and can make use of mantras, hymns (stotra), statues (mūrti) and diagrams (yantra). [66]

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