Jain concepts

the way of ahimsa; Digambara and Svetambara
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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:46 am

Ācārya Śivamuni (b. 1942) of the Śramaṇa Saṅgha is known for his contribution of “Ātma Dhyāna” (Self-Meditation). The focus in this system is directly meditating on the nature of the self, making use of the mantra so’ham and using the Acaranga sutra as the main doctrinal source.[67]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:46 am

Muni Candraprabhasāgara (b. 1962) introduced “Sambodhi Dhyāna” (Enlightenment-Meditation) in 1997. It mainly makes use of the mantra Om, breathing meditation, the chakras and other yogic practices.[68]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Fri Dec 21, 2018 5:46 am

Sāmāyika

The name Sāmāyika, the term for Jain meditation, is derived from the term samaya "time" in Prakrit. Jains also use samayika to denote the practice of meditation. The aim of Sāmāyika is to transcend our daily experiences as the "constantly changing" human beings, called Jiva, and allow identification with the "changeless" reality in practitioner, called the atman. One of the main goals of Sāmāyika is to inculcate equanimity, to see all the events equanimously. It encourages to be consistently spiritually vigilant. Sāmāyika is practiced in all the Jain sects and communities.[citation needed] Samayika is an important practice during Paryushana, a special eight- or ten-day period.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:10 am

For Householders
In Jainism, six essential duties are prescribed for a śrāvaka (householder), out of which one duty is Samayika. These help the laity in achieving the principle of ahimsa which is necessary for his/her spiritual upliftment. The sāmayika vrata (vow to meditate) is intended to be observed three times a day if possible; other-wise at least once daily. Its objective is to enable the śrāvaka to abstain from all kinds of sins during the period of time fixed for its observance. The usual duration of the sāmayika vow is an antara mūharta (a period of time not exceeding 48 minutes). [69] During this period, which the layman spends in study and meditation, he vows to refrain from the commission of the five kinds of sin — injury, falsehood, theft, unchastity and love of material possessions in any of the three ways. These three ways are:-

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:11 am

by an act of mind, speech or body (krita),

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:11 am

inciting others to commit such an act (kārita),

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:11 am

approving the commission of such an act by others (anumodanā).

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:12 am

In performing sāmayika the śrāvaka has to stand facing north or east and bow to the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi. He then sit down and recites the Namokara mantra a certain number of times, and finally devotes himself to holy meditation. This consists in:

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:12 am

pratikramana, recounting the sins committed and repenting for them,

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:12 am

pratyākhyanā, resolving to avoid particular sins in future,

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:12 am

sāmayika karma, renunciation of personal attachments, and the cultivation of a feeling of regarding every body and thing alike,

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:12 am

stuti, praising the four and twenty Tīrthankaras,

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:13 am

vandanā, devotion to a particular Tirthankara, and

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:13 am

kāyotsarga, withdrawal of attention from the body (physical personality) and becoming absorbed in the contemplation of the spiritual Self.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:13 am

Sāmayika can be performed anywhere- a temple, private residence, forest and the like. But the place shouldn't be open to disturbance.[70] According to the Jain text, Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, while performing sāmayika, one should meditate on:

"I am involved in the saṃsāra (cycle of transmigration) in which there is no protection for souls, which is inauspicious, transitory and full of pain, and of the nature of not-Self; moksha is the opposite of this"-thus should one meditate while performing sāmayika.
— Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra (104)

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:14 am

For ascetics

The ascetic has to perform the sāmāyika three times a day. Champat Rai Jain in his book, The Key of Knowledge wrote:

The ascetic who has successfully passed through the preliminary stages of renunciation, as a householder, is expected to be an embodiment of desirelessness itself, so that his whole life is, as it were, a continuous sāmāyika from one end to the other.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:14 am

In 1017 Shreepujya Shree Vardhamana Suri[72] of the Kharatara Gaccha - one of Shvetambara Murtipujaka Gaccha sect revived the meditation Satya Sadhna and, since then, it has been a part of Kharatara Gaccha ever since. Satya Sadhna follows the processes of meditation in the Jain context based on the Tripadi[73] and its expansion-explanations in the Agamas.

One exposition of the Tripadi is explained as:[citation needed]

Upaneyi Va (appearance): There emerges a new phase of matter. This is called emergence of new mode.
Vighaneyi Va (disappearance): The old mode vanishes. This is called Disappearance of old mode.
Dhuveyi Va (permanence): Original qualities of the matter remain constant.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:15 am

Meditation techniques
According to the some commonly practiced yoga systems, high concentration is reached by meditating in an easy (preferably lotus) posture in seclusion and staring without blinking at the rising sun, a point on the wall, or the tip of the nose, and as long as one can keep the mind away from the outer world, this strengthens concentration. Garuda is the name Jainism gives to the yoga of self-discipline and discipline of mind, body and speech, so that even earth, water, fire and air can come under one’s control. Śiva is in Jainism control over the passions and the acquisition of such self-discipline that under all circumstances equanimity is maintained.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:15 am

Prānayāma – breathing exercises – are performed to strengthen the flows of life energy. Through this, the elements of the constitution – earth, water, fire and air – are also strengthened. At the same time the five chakras are controlled. Prānayāma also helps to stabilize one’s thinking and leads to unhampered direct experience of the events around us.[74]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:15 am

Next one practices pratyāhāra. Pratyāhāra means that one directs the senses away from the enjoyment of sensual and mental objects. The senses are part of the nervous system, and their task is to send data to the brain through which the mind as well as the soul is provided with information. The mind tends to enjoy this at the cost of the soul as well as the body. Pratyāhāra is obtained by focusing the mind on one point for the purpose of receiving impulses: on the eyes, ears, tip of the nose, the brow, the navel, the head, the heart or the palate.[75]

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