Jain concepts

the way of ahimsa; Digambara and Svetambara
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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:16 am

Contemplation is an important wing in Jain meditation. The practitioner meditates or reflects deeply on subtle facts or philosophical aspects. The first type is Agnya vichāya, in which one meditates deeply on the seven elementary facts - life and non-life, the inflow, bondage, stoppage and removal of karmas, and the final accomplishment of liberation. The second is Apaya vichāya, in which incorrect insights and behavior in which “sleeping souls” indulge, are reflected upon. The third is Vipaka vichāya dharma dhyāna, in which one reflects on the eight causes or basic types of karma. The fourth is Sansathan vichāya dharma dhyāna, when one thinks about the vastness of the universe and the loneliness of the soul, which has had to face the results of its own causes all alone.[75] A few important contemplation themes in Preksha meditation are - Impermanence, Solitariness, Vulnerability.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:16 am

In pindāstha-dhyāna one imagines oneself sitting all alone in the middle of a vast ocean of milk on a lotus flower, meditating on the soul. There are no living beings around whatsoever. The lotus is identical to Jambūdvīpa, with Mount Meru as its stalk.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:16 am

Next the meditator imagines a 16-petalled lotus at the level of his navel, and on each petal are printed the (Sanskrit) letters “arham“ and also an inverted lotus of 8 petals at the location of his heart. Suddenly the lotus on which one is seated flares up at the navel and flames gradually rise up to the inverted lotus, burning its petals with a rising golden flame which not only burns his or her body, but also the inverted lotus at the heart.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:17 am

The flames rise further up to the throat whirling in the shape of a swastika and then reach the head, burning it entirely, while taking the form of a three-sided pyramid of golden flames above the head, piercing the skull sharp end straight up. The whole physical body is charred, and everything turns into glowing ashes. Thus the pinda or body is burnt off and the pure soul survives.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:17 am

Then suddenly a strong wind blows off all the ashes; and one imagines that a heavy rain shower washes all the ashes away, and the pure soul remains seated on the lotus. That pure Soul has infinite virtues, it is Myself. Why should I get polluted at all? One tries to remain in his purest nature. This is called pindāstha dhyāna, in which one ponders the reality of feeling and experiencing.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:17 am

In padāstha dhyāna one focuses on some mantras, words or themes. Couple of important mantra examples are, OM - it signifies remembrance of the five classes of spiritual beings (the embodied and non-embodied Jinas, the ascetics, the monks and the nuns), pronouncing the word “Arham” makes one feel “I myself am the omniscient soul” and one tries to improve one’s character accordingly. One may also pronounce the holy name of an arhat and concentrate on the universal richness of the soul.[75]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:17 am

In rūpāstha dhyāna one reflects on the embodiments of arihants, the svayambhuva (the self-realized), the omniscients and other enlightened people and their attributes, such as three umbrellas and whiskers – as seen in many icons – unconcerned about one’s own body, but almighty and benevolent to all living beings, destroyer of attachment, enmity, etc. Thus the meditator as a human being concentrates his or her attention on the virtues of the omniscients to acquire the same virtues for himself.[75]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:17 am

Rūpātita dhyāna is a meditation in which one focuses on bodiless objects such as the liberated souls or siddhas, which stand individually and collectively for the infinite qualities that such souls have earned. That omniscient, potent, omnipresent, liberated and untainted soul is called a nirañjāna, and this stage can be achieved by right vision, right knowledge and right conduct only. Right vision, right knowledge and right conduct begin the fourth stage of the 14-fold path.[75]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:18 am

The ultimate aim of such yoga and meditation is to pave the way for the spiritual elevation and salvation of the soul. Some yogis develop their own methods for meditation.

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:18 am

There are many rituals in Jainism's various sects. According to Dundas, the ritualistic lay path among Śvētāmbara Jains is "heavily imbued with ascetic values", where the rituals either revere or celebrate the ascetic life of Tirthankaras, or mendicants, or progressively get closer to psychologically and physically living ever more like an ascetic.[82][83] The ultimate ritual is sallekhana, a religious death through ascetic abandonment of food and drinks.[82] The Digambara Jains follow the same theme, but the details differ from Śvētāmbaras, and according to Dundas, the life cycle and religious rituals are closer to the liturgy found among Hindu traditions.[82] The overlap in Jain and Hindu rituals is largely in the life cycle (rites-of-passage) rituals, according to Padmanabh Jaini, and likely one that developed over time because Jains and Hindus societies overlapped, and rituals were viewed as necessary and secular ceremonies.[84][85]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:18 am

Jains do not believe in a creator god, but do ritually worship numerous deities.[83] The Jinas are prominent and a large focus of this ritualism, but they are not the only deva in Jainism. A Jina as deva is not an avatar (incarnation) in Jainism, but the highest state of omniscience that an ascetic tirthankara achieved.[86] Out of the 24 Tirthankaras, Jain devotional worship is predominantly addressed to four: Mahāvīra, Parshvanatha, Neminatha and Rishabhanatha.[87] Among the non-tirthankara saints, devotional worship is common for Bahubali among the Digambaras.[88] Some of Jaina rituals remember the five life events of the tirthankaras, called the Panch Kalyanaka, are rituals such as the Panch Kalyanaka Pratishtha Mahotsava, Panch Kalyanaka Puja and Snatrapuja.[89][90]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:19 am

The basic worship ritual practised by Jains is darsana (seeing) of deva, which includes Jina,[92] or other yaksas, gods and goddesses such as Brahmadeva, 52 Viras, Padmavati, Ambika and 16 Vidyadevis (Sarasvati, Lakshmi, others).[93][94][95] The Terapanthi sub-tradition of Digambaras do not worship many of the deities popular among mainstream Digambaras, and they limit their ritual worship to Tirthankaras.[96] The worship ritual is called the devapuja, is found in all Jaina sub traditions, which share common features.[97] Typically, the Jaina layperson enters the temple inner sanctum in simple clothing and bare feet, with a plate filled with offerings, bows down, says the namaskara, completes his or her litany and prayers, sometimes is assisted by the temple priest, leaves the offerings and then departs.[97]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:19 am

Jain practices include performing abhisheka (ceremonial bath) of the images.[98] Some Jain sects employ a pujari (also called upadhye) for rituals, who may be a non-Jain (a Hindu), to perform special rituals and other priestly duties at the temple.[99][100] More elaborate worship includes ritual offerings such as rice, fresh and dry fruits, flowers, coconut, sweets, and money. Some may light up a lamp with camphor and make auspicious marks with sandalwood paste. Devotees also recite Jain texts, particularly the life stories of the tirthankaras.[101][91]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:19 am

The traditional Jains, like Buddhists and Hindus, believe in the efficacy of mantras and that certain sounds and words are inherently auspicious, powerful and spiritual.[102][103] The most famous of the mantras, broadly accepted in various sects of Jainism, is the "five homage" (panca namaskara) mantra which is believed to be eternal and existent since the first ford-maker's time.[102] The medieval era Jain worship practices, according to Ellen Gough, also developed tantric diagrams of the Rishi-mandala where the tirthankaras are portrayed.[104] The Tantric traditions within Jainism use mantra and rituals that are believed to accrue merit for rebirth realms.[105]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:20 am

The dravya in Jainism are fundamental entities, called astikaya (literally, "collection that exists).[164] They are believed to be eternal, and the ontological building blocks that constitute and explain all existence, whether perceived or not.[164][165]

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Re: Jain concepts

Post by DNS » Sat Dec 22, 2018 12:20 am

According to the Śvētāmbara tradition of Jainism, there are five eternal substances in existence: Soul (jiva), Matter (pudgala), Space (akasha), motion (Dharma) and rest (Adharma).[166][note 7] To this list of five, the Digambara Jain tradition adds "Time" (kala) as the sixth eternal substance.[166][164][168] In both traditions, the substance of space is conceptualized as "world space" (lokakasha) and "non-world space" (alokiakasha). Further, both soul and matter are considered as active ontological substances, while the rest are inactive.[166] Another categorization found in Jain philosophy is jiva and ajiva, the latter being all dravya that is not jiva.[164][165]

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